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Xwedodah ist ein spirituell beeinflusster Stil der konsanguinen Ehe, von dem angenommen wird, dass er vor der muslimischen Eroberung Persiens im Zoroastrismus historisch praktiziert wurde. Beschreibung: Pahlavi Rivayat accompanying the Dādestān ī Dēnīg Chapter 8, Xwēdōdah (Next of Kin Marriage). Datum des Uploads. Sep 29, Copyright. Xwedodah. El matrimonio consanguíneo en la Persia sasánida. Una comparación entre fuentes pahlavíes y greco-latinas. Gespeichert in. Wie sagt man Xwedodah auf Englisch? Aussprache von Xwedodah 1 audio-​Aussprache, und mehr für Xwedodah. Xwedodah (Kazzak) ❮Kyphosis❯ - Blutelf Rachsucht Dämonenjäger, GsST

Xwedodah

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History Of Zoroastrians - Brother And Sister Marriage - The Parsi community Xwedodah

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Translations of Xwedodah Add a translation. Comments about Xwedodah. Eusebius cites the Gnostic theologian Bardaisan who stated that the Persians brought the practice with them wherever they went and that the Magi priesthood still practiced it by his time while Pseudo-Clement and Basil of Caesarea both commented on the unlawfulness of such practices in comparison to Christian doctrine.

Eznik of Kolb accused Zoroaster of having developed the doctrine due to his own desires to see it propagated among his people and Jerome attached the Persians amongst Ethiopians , Medians , and Indians as those who had intercourses with the female members of their families.

The Synod of Beth Lapat had proclamations against Christians who imitated the practice of xwedodah with Patriarch Aba I , a convert from Zoroastrianism, championing the cause against the practice.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Part of a series on Zoroastrianism Atar fire , a primary symbol of Zoroastrianism.

Primary topics. Divine entities. Scripture and worship. Accounts and legends. History and culture. Related topics. Criticism of Zoroastrianism. Ethology and Sociobiology.

Retrieved In Porat, Benjamin ed. Jewish Law Annual. Abingdon, Oxfordshire : Routledge. Accidental incest Avunculate marriage Child incestuous abuse Consanguine marriage Cousin marriage notable cases in the Middle East Covert incest Incest between twins Parallel and cross cousins Snokhachestvo.

Frank Prohibited degree of kinship Ten Abominations. Coefficient of inbreeding and relationship Inbreeding depression Pedigree collapse Westermarck effect Kin recognition.

Happy Birthday, Serious blowjob. Ja Nein, ich möchte weitermachen. Aussprache Umfrage Abstimmung. Sisters feet porn hope you are fine and safe. Asianhotties reddit Xwedodah and White chicks with big butts. Transliteration 8c1 G 8c2 2 Transcription 8c1 - 8c2 English Translation 8c1 In one place Celebrety jihad is revealed that Ohrmazd said to Zoroaster: These [are] the Mistress and male slave best things: worship of Ohrmazd the Lord; and offering firewood and incense and oblation [to] the fire; and satisfying [the needs of] a righteous man priest ; and he who practises X [his] mother or daughter or with [his] sister. Sie Xwedodah Wort hinzufügen First big cock tumblr Vorheriges Karussell Nächstes Karussell. Aus Wikimedia Commons, dem freien Medienarchiv.

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Xwedodah Seiten in der Kategorie „Zoroastrianism“

Rate Aussprache Schwierigkeit. Besuchen Sie eine Seite Teen dog fuckers. About Aarok More. Xwedodah über die Mitgliedschaft bei Scribd erfahren Startseite. Hochgeladen von Xerxes Goodarzie. Next of Kin August ames pornstar death Transliteration 8c1 G Videos parnos 2 Transcription 8c1 - 8c2 English Translation 8c1 In one place it is revealed that Ohrmazd said to Zoroaster: These [are] the four best things: worship of Ohrmazd the Lord; and Shemales fuck boy firewood and incense and oblation [to] the fire; and satisfying [the needs of] a righteous man priest ; and he who practises X [his] mother or daughter or with Young sex parties sister.

Some of the earliest Roman references are found in Catullus ca. In this version, the father is Theias, king of the Assyrians Fragment 25 K, pp.

Quintus Curtius Rufus, in his History of Alexander 8. CE , recounts the story of the Sogdian governor Sisimithres, who married his mother and had two sons with her, remarking that parents there were allowed to have indecent intercourse stupro coire with their children II, pp.

Boyce and Grenet, p. Much later, the Babylonian Talmud Bavli , ca. CE has several references to next-of-kin marriages. In Yevamot , fol. The family constallations envisaged are: a man has a son with his daughter, who thus is also her brother.

A man has a daughter with his mother, then he marries his daughter; then his father marries his granddaughter and has sons with her; thus, the man and his daughter have the same mother and are brother and sister; her father and her grandfather are both her husbands.

Epstein, Seder Nashim II, pp. The following is generally allowed: of three brothers, one e. Epstein, Seder Nashim II, p. In the discussion that follows, however, although it contains no explicit reference to Zoroastrian practices, the example in fol.

Eusebius, in his Praeparatio Evangelica VI, 16; tr. Gifford, cited Bardesanes 2nd cent. Clemen, p. Sextus Empiricus late 2nd cent. Thomson, p. A small group of them, who the Christian leaders decided would feign conversion, received detailed instructions for how to become a Mazdean: the sons and daughters of the nobility were to be instructed by the Magi; they were to take many wives to increase the Mazdean Armenian population; daughters should be the wives of fathers, sisters those of brothers, sons those of mothers, and grandchildren those of their grandparents; and so on tr.

Thomson, pp. Jerome, below. See also Faustus, tr. Most references, however, are simply included in general statements about wrong kinds of marriages from the point of view of current Christian dogma.

Exaggerating a good story Frye, p. Jerome, in the fourth century, ascribed to the Persians, Medians, Indians, and Ethiopians intercourse with their mothers, grandmothers, daughters, and granddaughters Adversus Jovinianum 2.

Braun, , p. Sachau, III, pp. Braun, , pp. Braun , , pp. She then married another man, one of the grandees of the realm tr. Hoffmann, , pp.

Sachau, II, pp. The Muslim authors also mention the practice. Gimaret and Monot, I, p. In addition, there are numerous references of various kinds to the marriages of the Magi scattered throughout Arabic literature, several cited by G.

The issue of Zoroastrian incest also came up in discussions about the status of the Zoroastrian religion. References to next-of-kin unions in Indic and East Asian sources have recently been studied by Jonathan Silk a-c, for details of the texts and text references.

The Maga-brahmins are known also from other sources, where they are said to be sun-worshippers living in western India, and are thought to have been Zoroastrians see Silk, a, pp.

The same claim shows up also in later Buddhist literature. Pradhan, , p. Beal, II, p. Chinese histories contain several references see Silk, a, pp.

The mid-seventh-century history of the Northern Dynasties, mentions only marriage with sisters, which makes them the lewdest of barbarians.

More interestingly, the Tongdian comp. Thomas Hyde, in his Historia Religionis veterum Persarum , does not appear to have talked about the issue, although he must have known the Classical references to Persian incest, but Humphrey Prideaux, Dean of Norwich, who, to a large extent, relied on Hyde for his description of Zarathustra and his teachings, cited Diogenes Laertius, Strabo, Philo, Tertullian, and Clement of Alexandria , p.

Prideaux was in turn cited in the anonymous An Universal History, from the Earliest Account of Time to the Present , where the editors, however, pointed out that, although this may have been the practice of the Persian kings, the Classical testimonies do not prove that Zarathustra allowed it anymore than the contemporary Parsi practice proves he did not V, pp.

The Universal History was in turn cited by Henry S. Olcott see below. Anquetil Duperron, reproducing the opinion of his dastur , assumed the term referred to marriage between first cousins , II, pp.

Adolf Rapp, suggested that, while consanguineous marriages were common among Persians, Medes, Bactrians, and Sogdians, and therefore an ancient Iranian custom, the claim that incest was permitted among Persians and Medes was an exaggeration.

Western scholars frequently expressed their repulsion toward what they regarded as a highly immoral practice. On the other hand, Joseph van den Gheyn, for instance, called it most repulsive and wondered how a religion of such elevated nature as Zoroastrianism could have taught it p.

In , in his book on ancient East-Iranian culture pp. He pointed out that, in western Iran, it was especially common in the royal families and that the Persians still practiced consanguineous marriage, citing Jakob Polak see above.

The Pahlavi texts, however, he pointed out, contain numerous reference to this practice, which could only be rejected by disowning the Pahlavi literature p.

In an attempt to put the question into a kind of historical perspective, West pointed out that, the fact that later Zoroastrians, especially the Parsis, rejected the practice carries as little evidence for the earlier period as the absence of slavery and the burning of witches and other judicial murders in Christian communities today for earlier, historically well attested practices pp.

Martin Haug echoed West in the edition of his Essays , where he compared the present rejection of what had been the custom ten centuries earlier with the burning, etc.

He regarded the Pahlavi commentary on Yasna When a priest told someone to marry his sister, he simply meant he should marry within the family , p.

Heinrich Hübschmann, while declaring himself incompetent to judge the Pahlavi evidence and agreeing with Sanjana that the Avestan evidence said nothing about the nature of the institution, disagreed with him on the reliability of the Greek evidence and, in support, cited the Armenian evidence from Faustus and Eznik.

William Jackson q. There must, however, have existed numerous Old Iranian myths that are not told in the extant Avesta, where they are, with a few exceptions, at most, alluded to, but are told in greater detail in the Pahlavi texts and, by the method of comparative mythology, can be shown to have existed in pre-Iranian times, even.

One could easily argue, on the basis of the later literature, that the mere reference to his daughter implies that she was also his spouse.

In the Enlightenment literature of the eighteenth century, the topic of next-of-kin marriage was occasionally referred to. Bernard Mandeville, in his Fable of the Bees , referred to Eastern men marrying their sisters and mothers, to make the point that, even if it seems abhorrent to some, there is nothing in nature to reject it, as it is based on fashion and custom.

Social and historical reasons for the custom were proposed early on. Spiegel, for instance, saw its origin in the old Iranian tribal system, where marriage within the tribe was preferred , p.

Keeping the blood pure within the tribe or among the nobility was proposed as a reason by several authors Spiegel, Geiger, see above, and still by Morony, p.

Mary Boyce suggested that the early Zoroastrian community found itself compelled by small numbers to sollemnize such unions , p.

Geiger above , and, to Henrik S. In the note on p. In a note to his English translation , p. It was therefore possible, he argued, that the ancient authors might simply have misunderstood pp.

Achaemenid royal incest should be understood in light of the reports that the king was above the law and the religion and so not in accordance with common law and custom p.

As for the Pahlavi passages cited by West, he stressed that several of them are about mythological situations or are inconclusive as to what kind of relationships the term refers to pp.

Casartelli, Other passages, he thought, refer to marriage between first cousins pp. His son, Behramgore T. Sunjana, pp.

Sheriarji Dadabhai Bharucha b. Katrak argues in detail that the accusations found in the non-Iranian sources are incorrect, that the Western image of Zarathustra and his teachings is distorted, including marriage, and that, in fact, Iranians held monogamous marriage in high regard even before the birth of the other world religions e.

He points out that the Avestan passages in which the term is used do not refer specifically to next-of-kin marriages, as also stressed by Sanjana and others.

All these discussions are, understandably, predicated on the conviction that the elevated morals of Zoroastrianism would never have tolerated such an immoral practice.

For a modern Khsnumist reading of Yasna 53, see K. References to incest among Zoroastrians in modern times appear to be non-existing, with the exception of a statement by Christine Dobbin p.

On the pages cited, however, this is not mentioned, and I suspect the statement is due to superficial reading of a sentence on p.

Zoroastrians were the objects of genetic research from the s see Undevia, pp. The first relatively comprehensive study was that of J. Undevia, who, in his Ph.

Absence of G6PD enzyme deficiency in Iranis correlates with their largely desert habitation, while high frequency in the Parsis may have various causes pp.

Absence of the Hb-S sickle cell gene in Iranis shows they did not mingle with Muslims, while it would have been introduced into the Parsi gene pool from the local population pp.

On the whole, the biological attributes of the Iranian Zoroastrians remained stable throughout history, while that of the Parsis changed due to their changing circumstances.

This also answers the question of ethnic purity, about which there has been much confusion p. Numerous studies on the genetic makeup of Zoroastrians have appeared since Undevia, , but there are as far as I have been able to verify none devoted to the question of inbreeding.

The Avesthagen website does not mention inbreeding, but other web reports suggest the Parsis were chosen because of their long history of inbreeding see, e.

The issue of genetic degeneration among Zoroastrians is mentioned throughout the literature, but genetic research has been careful not to focus on this aspect.

The issue shows up occasionally in literature, as in Keki N. Genetic rust? III and secs. Darmesteter, , p. Old Iranian religion thus featured an original human couple, incestuous offspring of the celestial union and from whom humanity, by necessity, was descended through further incest.

According to Yasna Keith, pp. Jaafar-Dehaghi, pp. Thus, in Yasna The actual practice in historical times, which is difficult to deny, should also be seen in the context of the Zoroastrian world view, where the cosmic battle between good and evil during the period of Mixture, in which mankind finds itself, is conducted on three levels: by the deities in the other world; by the sacrificers, who provide the link between the two worlds; and by humanity in this world.

Thus, the behavioral prototypes provided by the gods and the priests including the kings may have been interpreted literally and led to the extension of the practice among royalty the king being also the high priest and, to an unknown extent, in the population in general.

JamaspAsa ; ed. Nancy F. Behramgore T. Tehmuras D. New York and London, Martin Haug and Edward W. Jes P. Avesta, ed. Karl F.

Idem, Die Zendhandschriften der K. Alan H. Wolf and William H. Durham, eds. Sohrab Jamshedji Bulsara, ed. Firoz Jamaspji Jamasp Asa as The Philosophy of the Mazdayasnian Religion under the Sassanids , with prefatory remarks, notes, and a brief biographical sketch of the author, Bombay, Jean Baptiste Chabot, ed.

Oskar Braun, see Braun, Schoedel and Robert L. Wilken, eds. Grant , Paris, , pp. Jamsheed K. Janick Auberger, with a preface by Charles Malamoud, Paris, ; tr.

Fox and Pemberton. Quintus Curtius Rufus, History of Alexander , tr. Pursishn I-XL , Bombay, ; ed. Edward W. West in Pahlavi Texts , pt. Sciences philologiques et historiques 29, Paris, B [and its copy MR], ed.

Mark J. Cama Oriental Institute, Bombay , Wiesbaden, ; ms. DH, ed. Being a Facsimile Edition of Bondahesh Dhanjishah M.

Yuhan S. Peshotan Baramji Sanjana et al. Idem, ed. Vladimir Guirgass, Leiden, ; ed. Dissoi logoi , ed. Thomas M. Ter-Minasean, Erevan, ; tr.

Robert W. Eusebius, Praeparatio Evangelica , tr. Edwin H. Monica J. Michael M. University of Chicago, William Sherwood Fox and R.

Pemberton, ed. Cama Oriental Institute 14, Richard N. Nina G. Geldner, Über die metrik des jüngeren Avesta, nebst übersetzung ausgewählter abschnitte , Tübingen, Benjamin P.

Ward H. Louis H. Selbie and Louis H. Firoze M. Kotwal and Philip G. Kreyenbroek, with contributions by James R. Georg Hoffmann, Auszüge aus syrischen Akten persischer Märtyrer, übers.

Helmut Humbach, in collaboration with Josef H. Elfenbein and Prods O. Helmut Humbach and Pallan R. Cereti et al. Zoroastris vita, ejusque et aliorum vaticinia de Messiah e Persarum aliorumque monumentis eruuntur New York, Hanegraaff, eds.

Arthur B. Keith, tr. Kotwal, ed. Gregory C. Tanya M. You can try again. Original audio Your audio Congrats! Since you have exceeded your time limit, your recording has been stopped.

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